IoT serves as a bridge between the physical world and the digital world to remove the gap, and this begins with things. In the broader sense, there are many IoT devices. While some devices stay at the edge of the network, other devices are at the place where actual connection happens.
IoT tech stack includes the gateways that enable IoT to perform something with the data that comes from “IoT enabled” things or connected objects. We won’t take a count of IoT gateways here as there are devices that have different IoT layers of technology and do not necessarily need hardware. So, let’s jump into the article;
Introduction IoT Technology Stack
IoT technology stack is nothing but the range of technologies, standards, and tools that leads from initial connections of objects and devices to the varieties of applications that are used for connecting the things, the gathered data, and to communicate the different stages and steps that should be taken to power them.
Without all the things, the IoT tech stack will have nothing to do with the IoT devices and no reason for the Internet to connect with the things. So, in basic words, the IoT tech stack gathers all the actual purposes and aims, also known as IoT use case.
IoT device level
Devices come in different shapes and forms. When people think of IoT and devices, their thoughts revolve around smart devices like; smart bulbs, wearables, smart thermostats, smart doorbells, etc.
However, the IoT consists of other devices too, which are usually invisible, for example, the transducers. A transducer takes the energy and converts it from one form to another. The other levels of the IoT tech stack are as follows:
- Sound Level: The layer integrates with IoT hardware, including RFID, sensors, actuators, etc., which already exist, to recognise the real world and to collect the information that is relevant.
- Network Level: This layer gives the network support and transmits the information over the wired and wireless networks.
- Service Level: At this level, the IoT device services are created and managed.
- Interface: At this layer, the interaction among the users and the third party applications is provided.
- Scalability: It determines how many IoT devices will be supported by the hardware.
- Edge Computing based on Cloud: This layer provides multilayer solutions for software, for example, Arduino Uno.
An IoT gateway works as a router between the IoT devices and the cloud to route the data. In the initial times, the traffic was sent only one way by the gateway devices; to the cloud from the devices.
Nowadays, it is common for gateway devices to operate on both inbound and outbound traffic. The IoT data is sent to the cloud using the outbound traffic streams, while the tasks like device management and updating firmware of devices are done using Inbound traffic streams.
Some of the gateways serve more purposes than just routing traffic. These devices can be used for preprocessing that edges the data locally prior to sending it to the cloud. While doing this, the deduplicate of the device might be created, summarising or aggregating data as the solution of reducing the data volume that could be forwarded to the cloud. It can make a massive impact on the response time and cost of network transmission.
The platform of IoT is a technology having multilayers that enable provisioning, management, and automation within the IoT universe of connected devices. It connects your hardware, diversely, to the cloud by means of flexible connectivity options, security mechanisms on enterprise-grade, and broad powers of data processing.
An IoT platform for developers is ready to use a set of features that speeds up the development of application processes for connected devices and scalability, take care and compatibility of cross devices.
Hence, the IoT platform can be anything, depending on how you perceive it. It can be a middleware when we refer to the fact how it can link remote devices with user applications and interaction management among the application layers and the hardware.
IoT platform is also called IoT cloud enablement platform for pinpointing the significant values of business which empowers the standard devices with applications based on cloud and other services. The focus shifts to becoming a tool key for the developers of IoT.
IoT Stack Layers
The fundamentals of all IoT systems around the globe are defined under the elements of IoT. Still, these are subdivided into many layers to refine the IoT network:
- Perception; the layer which manages the smart devices across the system
- Transport; this layer allows the data transfer from the device to the cloud and vice-versa using different gateways and networks.
- Processing; this layer manages and controls the streamlining of data across the system of IoT levels.
- Application; this layer helps in the processes of analysis, controlling the device, and end-user reporting.
Since the changes in the IT environment continued, the organisations have added additional three layers:
- Business; the layer in which information is derived, and data analysis is done for decision making
- Security; the layer covers the protection aspects of the IoT architecture
- Edge Computing; works at the edge or near the collection of device information
How IoT revolutionise the industry
Behind the movement of industry 4.0, IoT has been one of the major driving forces, as it enabled the enhanced automation, collection of data and analysis, as well as the workflow and processes optimisation.
With IoT enabled intelligence, to work in unison, the devices can be programmed and can produce the outputs on assembly lines. On the status of the environment and equipment, it can do data collection, which will allow fail-safes and smart technologies to be added in the place, which can allow the proactive maintenance or recovery automation in case of failure.
Overlay Large Attack Surface
The landscape of IoT has a host of many devices connected to the network which are used in our daily lives like cell phones, smartwatches, and appliances, including cameras, sensors, and industrial devices. The whole attack surface of IoT is the total sum of the exposure of security risk from the devices and huge ecosystem along with the infrastructure they are embedded in.
This makes IoT and the IoT devices in the industry a target for cybercriminals. The attacks of IoT include cyberattacks that search for access to control the devices with the intention to either cause harm or to use the devices to attack the targets.
What is the tech stack in IoT?
The IoT tech stack refers to the variety of technologies, applications, and standards that are utilised for the development of IoT applications.
What is the technology used in IoT?
The major IoT technologies include RFID, NFC, LTE-A, WiFi, and Bluetooth, along with other technologies.
Which is a part of the IoT stack?
IoT tech stack develops and matures into the Thing Stack consisting of three layers of sensors. Microcontrollers and internet connectivity, and platforms for services.
Where are IoT devices used?
IoT is mainly used in manufacturing, transportations, and utility industries by using sensors and other devices. But it can be found in agriculture, infrastructure, and automation industries.
IoT tech stack can be found in various industries and is growing rapidly, but stepping into it on your own can be a lot risky. There are many businesses like 3StechLabs, which provide consultation for stepping into the IoT tech stack industry and making sure that you know everything before you dive in. So, these consultations can make sure you succeed in the IoT industry.